|In order to respond to consumers’ requirements, it is necessary to supply the market with high quality plum fruit. As the quality of the fruit starts to change immediately after harvest, cold storage is applied in order to maintain fruit characteristics, determined mainly in orchards. Since fruit quality and storage potential depend on cultivar, the aim of this research was to analyze and compare quality-related properties of ‘Čačanska Lepotica’ and ‘Empress’ before and after cold storage. Although examined cultivars have different ripening time, they are primarily grown for fresh consumption. Thus, all analyses were performed at harvest and after 28 days of cold storage (0–2 °C, 90–95% relative humidity), followed by a shelf life of three days at 20 °C. Fruit firmness, weight loss, susceptibility to Monilinia spp., soluble solids content, titratable acidity, antioxidant capacity, the concentrations of total phenolics, flavonoids and anthocyanins were monitored. After cold storage and subsequent shelf life, an increase in soluble solids content, antioxidant capacity, total phenolics and flavonoids were observed in both cultivars. Significant differences between fresh and stored plums were found in terms of fruit firmness. Fruit of ‘Čačanska Lepotica’ had higher content of soluble solids and anthocyanins and it was firmer in both analyses’ dates compared to fruit of ‘Empress’. However, its fruit was more susceptible to Monilinia spp. and had significantly higher weight loss than ‘Empress’ fruit.