Tehnološke karakteristike ploda nekih novih sorti šljive za sušenje
Technological properties of fruits of some newly developed plum cultivars intended for drying
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Savremena proizvodnja sušene šljive uslovljena je zahtevima tržišta; traži se krupan, ujednačeno obojen osušen plod, harmoničnog ukusa. U cilju ispunjenja ovakvih zahteva, vršena su ispitivanja sušenja nekih inostranih sorti šljive: Jojo, Jubileum, Valor i Stanley (standard). Ispitivan je hemijski sastav sveže šljive, mehanički sastav sveže i sušene šljive kao i ponašanje ploda tokom sušenja. Sušenje plodova je obavljeno u eksperimentalnoj sušari za ispitivanje procesa konvektivnog sušenja; primenjen je prostrujni postupak sušenja na temperaturi vazduha od 90°C.
Modern prune production is primarily governed by market demands. A growing demand for large, uniformly colored prunes of harmonious flavor has been evidenced in recent period. Aiming at satisfying these requirements, some investigations of some of introduced plum cultivars (Jojo, Jubileum, Valor and Stanley (standard)) have been conducted. Chemical composition of fresh plum fruits, mechanical composition of both fresh and dried plums and their behavior during the drying process have been studied. The investigation of convective drying included the application of an experimental apparatus, i.e. the vertical air-flow drying model, at a temperature of 90°C. The direction of vertical air flow was alternated at precisely determined time intervals. A glass, which enables monitoring of the drying process and changes on fruits accordingly, is provided at the front of the chamber. - Two - year results of the study of suitability of some plum cultivars suggest the following conclusions: Jojo - f...ruits are uniformly large, easily dried, do not leak during the drying process. Prunes are of dull flavor, extremely dark, almost black (similar to cv Valjevka). Advantages: simple drying technology. Shortcomings: large pit; Jubileum - prunes are large, of pleasant aroma and consistency, and appealing black violet shade of skin. Shortcomings: manipulation during the drying process is impeded due to fruit softening. Valor - fruits are uniformly large, dry matter content varies, prunes are flavorless; excellent dessert cultivar. Results of the study achieved so far do not recommend this cultivar for drying; Stanley - technological characteristics of fruits of this cultivar are generally known. Fruits are easily dried, favorable drying ratio. Shortcomings: large pits, over some seasons, prunes are non-harmonious in flavor.
Keywords:sušena šljiva / sorte / šljiva / mehanički sastav ploda / hemijski sastav ploda / prune / plum / mechanical and chemical composition of fruits
Source:Voćarstvo, 2009, 43, 167-168, 101-106
- Naučno voćarsko društvo Srbije, Čačak